Species

EU Regulation on invasive alien species

Asclepias syriaca

IUCN provides technical support to the European Commission for the implementation of the European Union Regulation (No 1143/2014) on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species (IAS). Links to the technical reports, hosted on the EC CIRCABC site, are found below. For more information on the EU IAS Regulations, and the list of IAS of Union concern, please see the European Commission (EC) webpage on IAS, and the IUCN infographic on the EU Regulation.

Identification guides of the IAS of Union concern

- Support for customs 2017 guide includes; giant rhubarb (Gunnera tinctoria), alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides),  marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax f. virginalis), Siberian chipmunk (Tamias sibiricus) and Pallas's squirrel (Callosciurus erythraeus). 

- Support for customs 2018 guide includes; parrot’s feather (Myriophyllum aquaticum), various-leaved water-milfoil (Myriophyllum heterophyllum), fountain grass (Pennisetum setaceum), spiny-cheek crayfish (Orconectes limosus), eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis).

- Support for surveillance 2018 guide includes; coypu (Myocastor coypus), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), parrot’s feather (Myriophyllum aquaticum), various-leaved water-milfoil (Myriophyllum heterophyllum), spiny-cheek crayfish (Orconectes limosus), virile crayfish (Orconectes virilise), American signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus), red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), (Procambarus fallax f. virginalis).

Nomenclature
This inventory of scientific, common and commercial names provides two tables with the names of the 49 species of Union concern in all 24 official EU languages, including synonyms, non-valid synonyms, older names, hybrids and varieties. (Download the summary document, scientific names and common names.)

Measures and costs for prevention, early detection, rapid eradication, and management
Information on the known management measures for prevention, early detection, rapid eradication, and management/control of IAS that are either included on the Union list, or have been proposed for inclusion. 

Plants:
Acacia saligna – Coojong wattle
Ailanthus altissima - tree of heaven 
Alternanthera philoxeroides - alligator weed
Ambrosia confertiflora – burr ragweed
Andropogon virginicus - broomsedge
Asclepias syriaca - common milkweed
Baccharis halimifolia - groundsel bush
Cabomba caroliniana - cabomba
Cardiospermum grandiflorum - balloon vine
Cortaderia jubata – Andean pampass grass
Eichornia crassipes - water hyacinth
Elodea nuttallii - Nuttall’s waterweed
Ehrharta calycina - perennial veldt grass
Gunnera tinctoria - Chilean rhubarb
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides - Senegal tea plant
Hakea sericea - silky hakea
Heracleum spp. - hogweeds
Humulus scandens - Japanese hop
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides - floating pennywort
Impatiens glandulifera - Himalayan balsam
Lagarosiphon major - curly waterweed
Lespedeza cuneata - bush clover
Ludwigia spp. - water primrose
Lygodium japonicum - Japanese climbing fern
Lysichiton americanus - yellow skunk cabbage
Microstegium vimineum - stiltgrass
Myriophyllum spp. - broadleaf watermilfoil and parrot's feather
Parthenium hysterophorus - parthenium weed
Pennisetum setaceum - fountain grass
Persicaria perfoliata - mile-a-minute weed
Pistia stratiotes - water lettuce
Prosopis juliflora - mesquite
Pueraria montana - kudzu
Salvinia molesta - African pyle
Tridaca sebifera – Chinese tallow tree

Animals:
Alopochen aegyptiaca - Egyptian goose
Ameiurus spp. - bullhead catfish
Channa spp. - snakeheads
Corvus splendens - house crow
Eriocheir sinensis - Chinese mitten crab
Hemigrapsus sanguineus - Asian shore crab
Lepomis spp. - sunfish
Lithobates catesbeianus - American bullfrog
Nasua nasua - South American coati
Neovison vison - American mink
Nyctereutes procyonoides - raccoon dog
Ondatra zibethicus - muskrat 
Pacifastacus, Faxonius, Procambarus spp. - freshwater crayfish
Perccottus glenii - Amur sleeper
Pseudorasbora parva - topmouth gudgeon
Rapana venosa - rapana whelk
Threskiornis aethiopicus - sacred ibis
Trachemys scripta - sliders
Vespa velutina nigrithorax - Asian yellow-legged hornet

Non-lethal measures 
This technical report presents an annotated inventory of non-lethal measures to eradicate or manage the 19 vertebrate species currently included on the Union list.

Pathways guidance
This document provides guidance on the interpretation and application of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) classification of pathways of introduction of invasive species. (Also see the Pathways key document.)

Compilations of costs of prevention and management of IAS in the EU
This report reviews available methodologies to assess and analyse the costs and benefits of relevance to IAS prevention and management, including economic, biodiversity, environmental, social and welfare considerations, measured in different currencies. It also proposes a database structure and a methodology to record in a standardised manner the information on costs and efficiency of measures targeting IAS, and a multi-criteria analysis method to assess different management alternatives. (Also see the costs and database.)

IAS native to the EU (link to report, Annex I and Annex II)

Information sheets on the 20 species that are native in one part of the Union, but alien and (potentially) invasive in another part, which have the most significant adverse impacts on biodiversity.

Plants:
Centaurea diluta - North African knapweed
Rumex alpinus - monk's-rhubarb
Telekia speciosa - heart-leaved ox eye

Animals:
Apis mellifera ssp. - bees
Asterias rubens - common starfish
Cercopagis pengoi - fishhook waterflea
Cordylophora caspia - European fouling hydroid
Crocidura russula - greater white-toothed shrew
Dikerogammarus villosus - killer shrimp
Dreissena polymorpha - zebra mussel
Hemimysis anomala - bloody-red shrimp
Lepus europaeus - European hare
Myodes glareolus - bank vole
Natrix maura - viperine snake
Neogobius melanostomus - round goby
Oryctolagus cuniculus - European rabbit
Pelophylax ridibundus - Eurasian marsh frog
Podarcis siculus - Italian wall lizard
Silurus glanis - European catfish
Thaumetopoea processionea - oak processionary moth

Avoidable Invasions

This technical report aims to provide information and a non-exhaustive list of examples of avoidable incursions by alien species around the globe. These may have taken place either through usual or unusual pathways of introduction, their peculiarity lying on the fact that the relevant triggering factors were non-essential and sometimes preventable (e.g. to reduce labour costs).

Analysis of Regional Sea Conventions decisions/recommendations on IAS

This report collects and analyses the provisions on IAS (or non-indigenous species) in the decisions/recommendations adopted by the Regional Sea Conventions (RSC). The regional conventions addressed in this document are OSPAR, HELCOM, Barcelona Convention and Bucharest Convention.

Legal provisions on soil import

This technical note addresses the types of soil and growing media that should be considered relevant as possible means of introduction of IAS into the European Union. The pathways through which these can enter the EU, as well as values and volumes of imports into the Union are explored, where possible. This report also provides an overview of current international, regional and national legislation related to the import of soil and growing media into the EU and in some relevant third countries.

EU IAS Regulations Infographic Photo: IUCN

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