Europe

European Red List of Threatened Species

The European Red List is a review of the status of European species according to the IUCN regional Red Listing guidelines. It identifies those species that are threatened with extinction at the European level (Pan-Europe and the European Union) so that appropriate conservation action can be taken to improve their status.
Thunnus thynnus Oceana / Keith Ellenbogen

Funded by the European Commission since 2006, through a mix of funding schemes, the European Red List is compiled by IUCN’s Global Species Programme in collaboration with the Species Survival Commission and other partners and experts. To date 15,060 species have been assessed on the European Red List including all vertebrate species (mammals, amphibians, reptiles, birds and fishes), all dragonflies, all butterflies, all bees, all grasshoppers, crickets and bush-crickets, all freshwater molluscs, all trees, all medicinal plants, all pteridophytes and a selection of terrestrial molluscs, saproxylic beetles, bryophytes, and endemic shrubs.

IUCN assessed the status of the aforementioned species using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, which is the most widely accepted system for measuring extinction risk globally. All assessments followed the guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at regional levels.

Adonis Vernalis

Additionally, IUCN has recently been awarded a project funded by the European Commission (EC) to assess the extinction risk of all native European hoverfly species (approx. 900 species). This project started in January 2019 and will run until December 2021. The European Red List of Hoverflies stems from Action 1B of the EU Pollinators Initiative put forward by the EC in June 2018 to address the decline of pollinators in the European Union.

Developing European Red Lists for these species groups will provide a comprehensive overview of their extinction risk and distributions in Europe, and will contribute to guiding policy decisions and conservation actions. These new assessments will supplement the existing European Red Lists and will provide a detailed picture of the status of biodiversity in Europe, thus, contributing to making the European Red List a Barometer of Life.

Species Groups

•    Amphibians
•    Bees
•    Birds 
•    Bryophytes                             
•    Butterflies
•    Dragonflies                                                                                                                   
•    Endemic Shrubs    
•    Ferns and Lycopods
•    Freshwater Fishes
•    Grasshoppers, Crickets & Bush-crickets
•    Mammals
•    Marine Fishes
•    Medicinal Plants
•    Non-marine Molluscs
•    Reptiles
•    Saproxylic Beetles
•    Trees 
•    Vascular Plants                                                                                                                                       

Amphibians

European Red List of Amphibians Photo: IUCN This publication summarises results for Europe’s 85 native species of amphibians. Nearly a quarter of these species are threatened with extinction at the European level as a result of threats including habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation, pollution, climate change, and invasive alien species.

Click here to download this report (9.1 MB).

 

Bees

European Red List of Bees Photo: IUCN This publication summarises results for all Europe’s native species of bees (1,965 species). 9.2% of species are threatened with extinction at the European level due to habitat loss as a result of agriculture intensification (e.g., changes in agricultural practices including the use of pesticides and fertilisers), urban development, increased frequency of fires and climate change.

Click here to download this report (3.72 MB).

 

Birds

European Red List of Birds Photo: IUCN This publication summarises results for Europe’s 533 native species of birds. Approximately 13% of these species are threatened with extinction at the European level as a result of threats including changing land-use practices, invasive and alien species and illegal killing of birds.

Click here to download this report (4.96 MB).

 

Bryophytes

Cover of the European Red List of Bryophytes showing a green species. Photo: IUCN This publication summarises results for Europe’s 1, 796 native species of bryophyte. 22.5% of species are threatened with extinction at the European level due to natural systems modification, including flooding for dam construction and land reclamation projects. Other significant threats include climate change and current agriculture practices. (e.g. the use of pesticides and fertilisers). 

Click here to download this report (9.5 MB).                  

                       

Butterflies

IUCN European Red List of Butterflies Photo: IUCN This publication summarises results for a selection of Europe’s native species of butterflies. About 9% of the species are threatened with extinction at the European level as a result of threats including habitat loss and degradation due to changes in agricultural management.

Click here to download this report (2.69 MB).

 

Dragonflies

IUCN European Red List of Dragonflies Photo: IUCN This publication summarises results for Europe’s 137 native (sub)species of damselflies and dragonflies. Approximately one out of seven are threatened with extinction at the European level. One of the most important threats is the desiccation of their habitat due to the increasingly hot and dry summers combined with the intensified water extraction for drinking and irrigation.

Click here to download this report (1.78 MB).

 

Endemic Shrubs 

Cover endemic shrubs Photo: IUCN This publication summarises results for a selection of Europe's 262 endemic shrub species. Almost half, 48%, of species were assessed as being threatened with extinction. The main threats to shrubs are invasive species, unmanaged livestock grazing and climate change.                                                                                                             

Click here to download this report (2.21 MB)

 

Ferns and Lycopods

IUCN European Red List of Ferns and Lycopods Photo: IUCN This publication summarises results for all Europe’s native species of ferns and lycopods (194 species). 19.9% of species are threatened with extinction at the European level mainly due to urbanization and infrastructure, human intrusions and disturbance, pollution, and water use and management.

Click here to download this report (6.21 MB).

 

Freshwater Fishes

IUCN Red List of Freshwater Fishes Photo: IUCN This publication summarises results for Europe’s native species of freshwater fishes and lampreys. At least 37% of these species are threatened. Major threats include the over-abstraction of water, which in many cases is further exacerbated by increasing droughts due to climate change, pollution, and the introduction of alien species. Other important threats include overfishing, especially in the large rivers of Eastern Europe and the massive increase in dam constructions which lead to the interruption of stream connectivity and the total alteration of the stream habitats.

Click here to download this report (3.63 MB).

 

Grasshoppers, Crickets & Bush-crickets

IUCN European Red List of Grasshoppers, Crickets and Bush-crickets Photo: IUCN This publication summarises the results for Europe’s native species of grasshoppers, crickets and bush-crickets. Overall, 28.5% of species in Europe and 30.6% in the EU 28 are threatened. Habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation as a consequence of agricultural land use intensification is a major threat to European Orthoptera species. Other important threats are the increasing frequency of wildfires, touristic development and urbanisation, climate change, afforestation and intensive forest management, drainage and river regulations, recreational activities, deforestation, limestone quarrying and sand excavations and invasive species.

Click here to download this report (6.59 MB).

 

Mammals

IUCN European Red List of Mammals Photo: IUCN Nearly one in six (15%) of Europe’s 2313 mammal species are threatened, and a further 9% are close to qualifying for threatened status. Habitat loss and degradation is the greatest threat to terrestrial mammals in Europe, while the main issue for marine mammals are accidental mortality (e.g., fisheries bycatch), pollution, and overexploitation.

Click here to download this report (11.09 MB).

 

Marine Fishes

IUCN European Red List of Marine Fishes Photo: IUCN This publication summarises results for all Europe’s native species of marine fishes (1,220 species). 7.5% of species are threatened with extinction at the European level due to mainly overfishing, coastal development, energy production and mining, and pollution.

Click here to download this report (4.15 MB).

 

Medicinal Plants

IUCN European Red List of Medicinal Plants Photo: IUCN This publication summarises results for a selection of Europe’s native species of medicinal plants. 2.4% of the 400 extant species for which sufficient data are available are threatened with extinction at the European level as a result of threats that include collection of plants from the wild and agriculture (livestock farming, annual and perennial non-timber crops, and plantation forestry). Although the level of threat is currently low, data for many of the species is lacking and monitoring of harvest and trade is recommended.

Click here to download this report (6.60 MB).

 

Non-marine Molluscs

Cover of the terrestrial molluscs brochure Photo: IUCN This publication summarises results for a selection of Europe's native terrestrial mollusc species. Overall 21.8% of molluscs species are threatened with extinction and 6% of species are thought to be decreasing in population size. 1, 233 species terrestirial molluc species were assessed in this LIFE project. It was found that natural systems modifications presented the greatest threat to this species group. 

Click here to download this report (1.69 MB)

 

IUCN European Red List of Non-marine Molluscs Photo: IUCN This publication summarises results for all of Europe’s native freshwater species of mollusc and for a selection of terrestrial mollusc families.. About 44% of the freshwater molluscs and 20% of the selected terrestrial molluscs are threatened with extinction at the European level as a result of threats including pollution, dams and water extraction (mainly for agriculture and drinking purposes) for the freshwater ecosystems and urbanisation, agriculture and recreational activities for the terrestrial molluscs.

Click here to download this report (3.58 MB).

 

Reptiles

IUCN European Red List of Reptiles Photo: IUCN This publication summarises results for Europe’s 151 native species of terrestrial and freshwater reptiles. Approximately one fifth of these species are threatened with extinction at the European level as a result of threats including habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation, pollution, overharvesting, and deliberate persecution.

Click here to download this report (8.77 MB).

 

Trees

A cluster of red berries in the sunshine Photo: IUCN This publication summarises results for Europe's 454 native tree species. 42 % of these species are threatened with 58% of endemic European trees being at risk of extinction. The main threats come from  invasive and problematic species, livestock farming, land abandonment, ecosystem modification, deforestation and wood harvesting.

Click here to download this report (10.62 MB).

 

Saproxylic Beetles

IUCN European Red List of Saproxylic Beetles Photo: IUCN This publication from 2018 summarises the results for around 700 European saproxylic beetles. Overall, 18% of species are considered threatened in Europe. The main threat to this species is the loss of veteran trees across European landscapes.

Click here to download this brochure (1.63 MB).

 

IUCN European Red List of Saproxylic Beetles 2010 Photo: IUCN This publication from 2010 summarises results for a selection of Europe’s native species of saproxylic beetles. Nearly 11% of these species are threatened with extinction at the European level as a result of threats including habitat loss and degradation due to logging and wood harvesting, agricultural expansion and intensification, urban sprawl, forest fires and climate change. The loss of ancient and veteran trees at continental scale is a cause for considerable concern.

Click here to download this report (2.07 MB).  

 

Vascular Plants 

IUCN European Red List of Vascular Plants Photo: IUCN This publication summarises results for a selection of Europe’s native species of vascular plants. In total 1,826 vascular plant species have been assessed from the following groups: species listed on European or international policy instruments, selected priority crop wild relatives, and aquatic plant species. Of those at least 467 species are threatened with extinction. The main threats for the three groups are intensified livestock farming, recreational activities, tourism and urban development, wild plant collection, invasive alien species, natural system modifications and pollution.

Click here to download this report (3.89 MB).

Click here for an excel table of the full list of species and their IUCN Red List Category (Appendix 2).

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