SSC Groups

HEC Reviews and Case Studies

Overall reviews

A number of overall reviews of lessons learnt through the practice of human elephant conflict mitigation have been published. 


PDF icon Lessons from 15 years of human–elephant conflict mitigation: Management considerations involving biological, physical and governance issues in Africa

PDF icon Projects of the Human Elephant Conflict Taskforce: Results and Recommendations


Vertical integration model

Human-elephant conflict must be tackled at many levels, geographical and organizational, ranging from the site to the central government.

This case study provides an assessment of the players involved in HEC management in Tanzania and their roles.


PDF icon‘Vertically Integrated’ human-elephant conflict management system in Tanzania: Background and next steps


Understanding HEC

Determination of significant factors in Human-Elephant Conflict

  • Comparative analysis of elephant damage levels versus losses from other pest species in subsistence agricultural communities.
  • Identification of factors contributing to rural peoples' negative attitudes to elephants.
  • Improved understanding of human-elephant conflict dynamics in tropical forested areas. 
  • Recognition of the importance of problem elephant sub-populations and insights into their social ecology.


PDF iconThe social dimensions of HEC in Africa: a literature review and case studies from Uganda and Cameroon

PDF iconElephant crop raiding in the Dzanga-Sangha Reserve, Central African Republic

PDF iconThe distribution of elephants in relation to crop damage around the Bia Conservation Area of Ghana/Cote d'Ivoire during the 1999 rainy season. Executive summary

PDF iconAssessing the evidence for the existence of 'habitual problem elephants'


Managing problem elephants

  • Identification of policy vacuums in problem elephant management at national level.
  • Formulation of principles for the management of problem elephants.
  • Relative ineffectiveness of monetary compensation schemes for elephant damage.


PDF iconA review of problem elephant policies and management options in southern Africa

PDF iconHECWG Technical Brief: Review of Compensation Schemes for Agricultural and Other Damage Caused by Elephants

PDF iconFencing and other barriers against problem elephants

PDF iconMitigating Elephant Crop-raiding: The Red Volta Valley Experience, Ghana

PDF iconThe Elephants of Cabinda:Mission Report Angola, April 2005


Spatial analysis of HEC

  • Study of the potential future role for geographical information systems (GIS) to store, analyse and present data on human-elephant conflict.


PDF iconA spatial analysis of human-elephant conflict in the Tsavo ecosystem, Kenya

PDF iconRecommendations from the AfESG pilot sutdy on the use of satellite imagery to map HEC sites in Africa

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