The latest evaluation of the world’s birds reveals that more species than ever are threatened with extinction, according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™.
BirdLife International, which conducted the research for the IUCN Red List, found 1,227 species (12 percent) are classified as globally threatened with extinction. The good news is that when conservation action is put in place, species can be saved.
The IUCN Red List now lists 192 species of bird as Critically Endangered, the highest threat category, a total of two more than in the 2008 update.
“It extremely worrying that the number of Critically Endangered birds on the IUCN Red List continues to increase, despite successful conservation initiatives around the world,” says Simon Stuart, Chair of IUCN’s Species Survival Commission.
A recently discovered species from Colombia, the Gorgeted Puffleg (Eriocnemis isabellae), appears for the first time on the IUCN Red List, classified as Critically Endangered. The puffleg, a flamboyantly coloured hummingbird, only has 1,200 hectares of habitat remaining in the cloud forests of the Pinche mountain range in south-west Colombia and eight percent of this is being damaged every year to grow coca.
The Sidamo Lark (Heteromirafra sidamoensis), from the Liben Plain of Ethiopia, has been moved from Endangered to Critically Endangered and is in danger of becoming mainland Africa’s first bird extinction due to changes in land use. And coinciding with the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin’s birth, one of the Galapagos finches, the Medium Tree-finch (Camarhynchus pauper) also becomes Critically Endangered, partly as a result of an introduced parasitic fly.
“In global terms, things continue to get worse – but there are some real conservation success stories this year to give us hope and point the way forward,” says Dr Leon Bennun, BirdLife’s Director of Science and Policy.
It’s not only rare birds that are becoming rarer; common birds are becoming less common. In eastern North America, the Chimney Swift (Chaetura pelagica) is fast disappearing from the skies. Following continent-wide declines of nearly 30 percent in the last decade alone, this common species has been moved from Least Concern to Near Threatened.
“Across Africa, widespread birds of prey are also disappearing at an alarming rate, and emblematic species such as Bateleur (Terathopius ecaudatus) and Martial Eagle (Polemaetus bellicosus) have been placed in a higher category of threat as a result,” says Jez Bird, BirdLife’s Global Species Programme Officer. “These declines are mirrored in many species, in every continent.”
But it’s not all doom and gloom. In Brazil, Lear’s Macaw (Anodorhynchus leari) has been moved from Critically Endangered to Endangered. Named after the English poet, this spectacular blue parrot has increased four-fold in numbers as a result of a joint effort of many national and international non-governmental organizations, the Brazilian government and local landowners.
In New Zealand, the Chatham Petrel (Pterodroma axillaris) has benefited from work by the New Zealand Department of Conservation and has consequently been moved from Critically Endangered to Endangered. In Mauritius, the stunning Mauritius Fody (Foudia rubra) has been rescued from the brink of extinction after the translocation and establishment of a new population on a predator-free offshore island. It is now classified as Endangered, rather than Critically Endangered.
Similar work is now also underway for 32 Critically Endangered species as part of the BirdLife Preventing Extinctions Programme.
“Both the petrel and fody have suffered from introduced invasive species, and tackling these is one of the 10 key actions needed to prevent further bird extinctions that BirdLife has identified,” says Dr Stuart Butchart, BirdLife’s Global Research and Indicators Coordinator. “But to achieve this goal, more resources are needed. What the changes in this year’s IUCN Red List tell us is that we can still turn things around for these species. There just has to be the will to act.”
For more information or to set up interviews, please contact:
- Sarah Horsley, IUCN Media Relations Officer, t +41 22 999 0127, m +41 79 528 3486, e [email protected]
- Martin Fowlie, BirdLife Communications Officer, t +44 1223 279 813, e [email protected]
Notes to editors
- BirdLife is the Red List Authority for birds for the IUCN Red List. IUCN Red List categories include: Critically Endangered (facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild), Endangered (facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild), Vulnerable (facing a high risk of extinction in the wild), Near Threatened (close to qualifying for Vulnerable) and Least Concern (species not qualifying for the other categories, including widespread and abundant species). Species are assigned to categories using criteria with quantitative thresholds for population size, population trend, range size and other parameters. For more information visit: http://www.iucnredlist.org
- 77 species have changed their IUCN Red List categories. Many of these are a result of an improved knowledge of populations or threats but of the 12 species that changed category owing to changes in their population size, rate of decline or range size, eight were uplisted to a higher level of threat.
- To find out more about the 10 key actions needed to prevent further bird extinctions that BirdLife has identified, visit www.birdlife.org/cr_birds
- For more species, regional and country information about the IUCN Red List visit the BirdLife datazone
- To find out more about the BirdLife Preventing Extinctions Programme visit www.birdlife.org/extinction
- In total, nine species have been uplisted to Critically Endangered including the Flores Hawk-eagle (Spizaetus floris), Nightingale Reed-warbler (Acrocephalus luscinius), Marquesan Kingfisher (Todiramphus godeffroyi), Crow Honeyeater (Gymnomyza aubryana), Medium Tree-finch (Camarhynchus pauper), Palila (Loxoides bailleui), Sidamo Lark (Heteromirafra sidamoensis), Gorgeted Puffleg (Eriocnemis isabellae), and the Antioquia Brush-finch (Atlapetes blancae).
- Six have been downlisted from Critically Endangered to Endangered including the Chestnut-bellied Hummingbird (Amazilia castaneiventris), Minas Gerais Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes roquetti), Kaempfer's Tody-tyrant (Hemitriccus kaempferi), Mauritius Fody (Foudia rubra), Chatham Petrel (Pterodroma axillaris), and Lear's Macaw (Anodorhynchus leari)
- One, the Bulo Burti Boubou (Laniarius liberatus), has been downlisted from Critically Endangered to Not Recognized.
Other regional highlights
Hooded Grebe (Podiceps gallardoi) has been uplisted from Near Threatened to Endangered. This species was only described in 1974 and is found at only a few lakes in south-west Argentina and Chile. It has undergone a rapid population decline and work is underway to ascertain the causes of this decrease.
Palila (Loxioides bailleui) has been uplisted to Critically Endangered. This large finch is found in Hawaii and becomes the 13th Critically Endangered species for those islands, making them the world’s biggest extinction hotspot for birds.
Albert’s Lyrebird (Menura alberti) is confined to a relatively small area of rainforest between Blackwall Range, New South Wales, and Mistake Range, Queensland, Australia. It has been downlisted from Vulnerable to Near Threatened.
Marquesan Kingfisher (Todiramphus godeffroyi) is endemic to the Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia. It is at risk from introduced species such as Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus). As a result it has been uplisted to Critically Endangered.
Green Peafowl (Pavo muticus), a close relative of the familiar domestic Peacock, has been uplisted from Vulnerable to Endangered.
Orange-necked Partridge (Arborophila davidi) has been downlisted from Endangered to Near Threatened.
Grey Crowned-crane (Balearica regulorum) has been uplisted from Least Concern to Vulnerable.