SSC Groups

Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography of Literature on Palm Conservation

List compiled by Scott Zona, Ph






Adany, A. J., C. R. Birkinshaw & J. R. Andrews. 1994. Illegal palm felling in Lokobe Reserve, Madagascar. Principes 38(4): 204–210. [Three species are illegally extracted for timber; policing of the reserve is inadequate.]
Anderson, P. J. & F. E. Putz. 2002. Harvesting and conservation: are both possible for the palm Iriartea deltoidea? For. Ecol. Manage. 170: 271–283. [Recommendations for sustainable harvesting and best management practices]
Balick, M. J. & D. Johnson. 1994. The conservation status of Schippia concolor in Belize. Principes 38(3): 124–128. [The species is regarded as Vulnerable, and some populations are protected; however, large populations are threatened by development.]
Barfod, A. S. and Saw, L. G. 2002. The genus Licuala (Arecaceae, Coryphoideae) in Thailand. Kew Bulletin 57: 827-852. [Licuala is revised for Thailand. Thirteen species are recognized and the conservation status of each is reported.]
Barrow, S. 1994. In search of Phoenix roebelenii: the Xishuangbanna palm. Principes 38(4): 177–181. [Human exploitation of this rheophytic palm may threaten the survival of the species; monitoring future harvesting activities is recommended.]
Beentje, H. & J. Dransfield. 1994. Chrysalidocarpus decipiens. Principes 38: 129–133. [Authors describe the threats to this palm, now known as Dypsis decipiens, which has a very restricted range in Madagascar.]
Bernal, R. G. 1989. Endangerment of Colombian palms. Principes 33(3): 113–128. [A detailed assessment of the species, with maps, analyses of threats, and discussion of protections in place]
Bernal, R. & G. Galeano 2006. Endangerment of Colombian palms (Arecaceae): change over 18 years. Bot. Jour. Linnean Soc. 151: 151-163. [The overall number of threatened species in Colombia is the same now as it was 18 years ago, although the new Red List reflects major changes in taxonomic and floristic knowledge.]
Borchsenius, F. & F. Skov. 1999. Conservation status of palms (Arecaceae) in Ecuador. Acta Bot. Venezuelica 22(1): 221–236. [128 taxa are assessed; one is Critically Endangered, six are Endangered, and nine are Vulnerable.]
Brightsmith, D. & A. Bravo. 2006 Ecology and Management of Nesting Blue-and-Yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna) in Mauritia Palm Swamps Biodiversity & Conservation 15: 4271-4287. [Nest sites are limiting for Blue-and-Yellow Macaws. The macaws will nest in decapitated Mauritia palms, and a management plan that recommends the creation of nest sites is proposed.]
Britt, A. 2002. Observations on two dwarf Dypsis species in Betampona, eastern Madagascar. PALMS 46(3): 125–129. [Two species have such restricted and fragmented ranges that they are vulnerable to habitat disturbances.]
Britt, A., C. Clubbe & T. Ranarivelo. 2004. Conserving Madagascar’s plant diversity: Kew’s Madagascar threatened plants project. Curtis Bot. Mag. 21: 258–264. [An overview of RBG Kew’s efforts to conserve endangered palms in Madagascar]
Britt, A. & J. Dransfield. 2004. The conservation status of Marojejya darianii. PALMS 48(1): 7. [The palm is newly classified as Critically Endangered.]
Byg, A. & H. Balslev. 2003. Palm heart extraction in Zahamena, eastern Madagascar. PALMS 47(1): 37–44. [Extraction and deforestation are endangering many endemic species of palms.]
Chapin, M. H. & D. H. Lawrence. 2000. Developing a tropical botanical garden palm collection. PALMS 44(3): 121–126. [The collection of rare and endangered Hawaiian Pritchardia is highlighted.]
Chapin, M. H., K. R. Wood, S. P. Perlman & M. Maunder. 2004. A review of the conservation status of the endemic Pritchardia palms of Hawaii. Oryx 38: 273–281. [Conservation assessments for 23 taxa of Pritchardia]
Chazdon, R. L. 1988. Conservation‑conscious collecting: concerns and guidelines. Principes 32(1): 13–17. [The author provides guidelines for palm seed collectors.]
Chee, B. J. 2004. A new record for Johannesteijmannia perakensis in Kedah. Folia Malaysiana 5(1): 39–44. [A new locality for this palm means that it is no longer known only from the type locality.]
Dickie, J. B., M. J. Balick & I. M . Linington. 1992. Experimental investigations into the feasibility of ex situ preservation of palm seeds; an alternative strategy for biological conservation of this economically important plant family. Biodivers. & Conserv. 1: 112–119. [Most palm seeds appear to be desiccation intolerant; cryopreservation is probably not feasible for most palms.]
Dickie, J. B., M. J. Balick & I. M. Linington. 1993. Studies on the practicality of ex situ preservation of palm. Principes 37(2): 94–98. [Most palm seeds are intolerant of descication; some palms from dry habitats may be amenable to long-term seed storage.]
Dos Reis, M, A. Fantini, R. Nodari, A. Reis, M. Guerra & A. Mantovani. 2000. Management and conservation of natural populations in Atlantic Rain Forest: the case study of palm heart (Euterpe edulis Mart.). Biotropica 32: 894–902. [Extraction of palm hearts from wild populations threatens this species.]
Doyle, M. F. & D. Fuller. 1998. Palms of Fiji — I. Endemic, indigenous, and naturalized species: changes in nomenclature, annotated checklist, and discussion. Harvard Papers in Botany 3(1): 95–100. [Conservation statuses of all 24 native palms are provided; four taxa are Critically Endangered.]
Dransfield, J., A. S. Barfod & R. Pongsattayapipat. 2004. A preliminary checklist to Thai palms. Thai Forrest Bull. 32: 32–72. [The checklist includes 161 species, of which only 13 species are endemic to Thailand. No conservation assessments provided.]
Dransfield, J. & D. Johnson. 1989. The conservation status of palms in Sabah. Malayan Naturalist 43(1–2):16–19. [131 taxa are tabulated; 113 are classified as status unknown; one species is Extinct/Endangered and another is Endangered. Two species are Vulnerable; two more are Rare; 10 are Not Threatened.]
Endress, B. A., D. L. Gorchov, M. B. Peterson & E. Padrón Serrano. 2004. Harvest of the palm Chamaedorea radicalis, its effects on leaf production, and implications for sustainable management. Conserv. Biol. 18: 822–830. [Leaf harvesting at current rates is not sustainable, as it leads to a decline in leaf size and number after two years.]
Evans, R. J. 1996. Conservation status of Cryosophila with special reference to the critically endangered Cryosophila cookii and Cryosophila williamsii. Principes 40(3): 129–147. [11 taxa are assessed. Deforestation and overexploitation are serious threats to two species; current protections are probably inadequate.]
Fernando, E. S. & R. P. Cereno. 2000. Update on the status of Pinanga bicolana: a critically endangered palm species from the Philippines. Species 33 (Spring): 62. [The last remaining population of Pinanga bicolana is estimated to comprise fewer than 100 adults.]
Ford, H. & C. Bealy. 2004. Status of the Bankoulé palm, Livistona carinensis, in Djibouti. PALMS 48(2): 94–101. [The palm is Endangered.]
Galetti, M. & J. C. Fernadez. 1998. Palm heart harvesting in the Brazilian Atlantic forest: changes in industry structure and the illegal trade. Jour. Appl. Ecol. 35: 294–301. [Illegal extraction of Euterpe edulis threatens remaining natural stands.]
Gemmill, C. E. C. & T. Ranker. 1993. Conservation of the native Hawaiian palm genus Pritchardia. Bull. Nat. Trop. Bot. Gard. 23(1–2): 141–146. [A summary of the status of Hawaiian species is presented, along with a synopsis of recent conservation activities.]
Gerum, S. 1993. Pritchardia munroi: attempts to save a species from extinction. Principes 37(2): 80–81. [The author describes ex situ conservation at Waimea Arboretum and participating botanical gardens to preserve offspring from the last remaining individual of this species.]
Gruezon, W. S. & V. B. Amoroso. 2004. Conservation status of Philippine biota. 4. Salacca clemensiana Becc. (Arecaceae/Palmae) – a Mindanao endemic palm with high commercial, landscape and ornamental value. Asia Life Sciences 13: 81–98. [Newly discovered populations and assessments demonstrate that this palm is common and abundant, not rare, as previously classified. Natural history, conservation status and economic importance are discussed.]
Gunther, B. & P. Mahalik. 1988. Brahea edulis in the wild. Principes 32(4): 179–181. [The situation is dire for this endemic species of Guadalupe Island, Mexico, where feral goats prevent all reproduction and regeneration.]
Henderson, A. & M. Aubry. 1989. Attalea crassispatha, an endemic and endangered Haitian palm. Principes 33(2): 88–90. [A brief note on the distribution of this Critically Endangered palm]
Henderson, A., M. Aubry, J. Timyan & M. Balick. 1990. Conservation status of Haitian palms. Principes 34(3): 134–142. [The authors present an assessment of threats and protections for all of the country’s 13 genera of palms.]
Huang, S., Y. Wang & C. Wang. 1998. The study on conservation of vulnerable plant Caryota urens. Guihaia 18: 105–108. [Human disturbance of its environment, its hapaxanthic habit and slow reproduction in the wild are contributing to the endangerment of this species.]
James, A. 2003. Pseudophoenix sargentii in Dominica. PALMS 47(2): 57–61. [The author describes monitoring and demographic studies of this palm, along with efforts to protect the populations.]
Johnson, D. 1987. Conservation status of wild palms in Latin America and the Caribbean. Principes 31(2): 96–97. [A brief tabulation of the most threatened palms of the region]
Johnson, D. V. 1987. Worldwide endangerment of useful palms. Principes 31(1): 41. [A brief call to arms]
Johnson, D. V. 1991. The Mpapindi palm (Chrysalidocarpus pembanus) of Pemba Island, Tanzania. Principes 35(2): 83–85. [The species is classified as Vulnerable.]
Johnson, D. V. 1997. Palm conservation action plan completed. Principes 41(1): 48–49. [Publication announcement of the IUCN/SSC Palm Specialist Group’s action plan.]
Kahn, F. & F. Moussa. 1994. Diversity and conservation status of Peruvian palms. Biodiversity & Conserv. 3: 227–241. [140 species in 34 genera are assessed.]
Khan, M. S., M. A. Hassan & S. K. Basu. 2001. Rescue of an “extinct” palm in Bangladesh. Species 36 (Jul–Dec): without pagination. [A single individual of Corypha taliera was discovered near the Dhaka University campus; as the palm is monocarpic, seeds from the single fruiting event must be captured for ex situ propagation.]
Kiew, R. 1989. Conservation status of palms in peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Naturalist 43(1–2): 3–15. [An updated summary of the conservation status of the palms and an overview of protection efforts in and ex situ are presented.]
Kiew, R. 1989. Collecting endangered palms in peninsular Malaysia. Principes 33(2): 94–95. [A brief tabulation of rare palms and a plea to seed collectors to stop collecting seeds of endangered species.]
Kinnaird, M. F. 1992. Competition for a forest palm: use of Phoenix reclinata by human and nonhuman primates. Conserv. Biol. 6: 101–107. [Human harvesting of P. reclinata is not likely sustainable at present rates, and the activity threatens the survival of the Tana River Crested Mangabey.]
Kumar, P. V. S. & T. Coomar. 1999. Bentickia nicobarica: An endemic, endangered palm of the Nicobar Isands. PALMS 43(3): 118–121. [This palm has a restricted distribution and is endangered by habitat loss.]
Lewis, C. E. 1998. Tectiphiala ferox H. E. Moore. Principes 42(3): 179–180. [A brief note on in situ efforts to preserve this species.]
Lippincott, C. 1995. Reintroduction of Pseudophoenix sargentii in the Florida Keys. Principes 39(1): 5–13. [The history of the discovery and subsequent decline of this species is the Keys is recounted, along with in and ex situ conservation efforts by Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden.]
Lockett, L. 1991. Native Texas palms north of the Lower Rio Grande Valley: Recent discoveries. Principes 35(2): 64–71. [A note on the in situ conservation efforts of Sabal in Brazoria County, Texas]
Mathew, S. P. & S. Abraham. 1994. The vanishing palms of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Principes 38(2): 100–104. [Conservation assessment of 26 taxa from the islands found 10 species to be endangered.]
Maunder, M., B. Lyte, J. Dransfield & W. Baker. 2001. The conservation value of botanic garden palm collections. Biol. Conserv. 98: 259–271. [An assessment of botanical gardens finds that only 34% of threatened palms are grown in botanical gardens. Greater in-country conservation efforts are recommended.]
Maunder, M., W. Page, J. Maaurenmootoo, R. Pyendee, Y. Mungroo, A. Maljkovic, C. Vericel, & B. Lyte. 2002. The decline and conservation management of the threatened endemic palms of the Mascarene Islands. Oryx 36: 56–65. [11 species of palms are threatened, of which 9 Critically Endangered.]
McKean, S. G. 2003. Toward sustainable use of palm leaves by a rural community in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. Econ. Bot. 57: 65–72. [Hyphaene coriacea is being over-harvested and depleted from the wild. Management practices are recommended.]
Moore, H.E., Jr. 1979. Endangerment at the specific and generic levels in palms. Principes 23(2): 47–64. [A global review of the regions and taxa most at risk by the era’s foremost authority on palms]
Morici, C. 1997. Coccothrinax barbadensis in Antigua. Principes 41(2): 84–86. [Grazing by livestock prevents regeneration of this species, but a healthy stand occurs in a cemetery, where it is protected from grazing.]
Morici, C. 1998. Phoenix canariensis in the wild. Principes 42(2): 85–89, 92–93. [Gene flow from introduced species of Phoenix threatens the genetic integrity of some populations of this island endemic.]
Morici, C. 1999. Notes on the Cuban endemic species of the genus Thrinax: A preliminary contribution to the knowledge of its status, pp. 93–97 in M. Caballero Ruano (ed.). Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Ornamental Palms and Other Monocots from the Tropics. Acta Hort. 486. [Conservation observations on five taxa of Thrinax in Cuba, four of which are endemic (two are point endemics).]
Morici, C. 1999. Coccothrinax munizii. PALMS 43(4): 190–193. [The species is not in any immediate danger but could become threatened by invasive exotic weeds.]
Moya L., C. E. & A. T. Leiva S. 2000. Checklist of the palms of Cuba, with notes on their ecology, distribution and conservation. PALMS 44(2): 69–84. [96 taxa are indigenous to Cuba; conservation assessments for most species are provided.]
Nair, G. S., S. P. Mathew & A. Mohandas. 2001. Pinanga andamanensis – a vanishing endemic palm from the Andaman Islands. PALMS 45(4): 200–203. [The species is critically endangered; an ex situ conservation program has been established.]
Oyama, K. 1992. Conservation and exploitation of tropical resources: the case of Chamaedorea palms. Evolutionary Trends in Plants 6: without pagination. [Leaf harvesting threatens many species of Chamaedorea in Mexico and Central America.]
Padmanabhan, D. & C. Sudhersan. 1988. Mass destruction of Phoenix loureirii in south India. Principes 32(3): 118–123. [Over-harvesting for broom-making and burning of fields for agriculture are threatening this species, which the authors predict will be rare by the year 2000.]
Pearce, K. G. 1989. Conservation status of palms in Sarawak. Malayan Naturalist 43(1–2): 20–36. [The extraordinarily rich flora of 218 palm taxa in 25 genera is analyzed. Very many taxa fall into threatened categories.]
Pintaud, J.-C., T. Jaffré & J.-M. Veillon. 1999. Conservation status of New Caledonia palms. Pacific Conserv. Biol. 5: 9–15. [Of 37 palm taxa, four are Critically Endangered, one is Endangered, and eight are Vulnerable. Only four of the threatened taxa occur in protected habitat.]
Pintaud, J.-C. & H. Setoguchi. 1999. Satakentia revisited. PALMS 43: 194–199. [Satakentia liukiuensis classified as Low Risk but Conservation Dependant.]
Powell, D. & J. Covacevich 1983. Lister's Palm, Arenga listeri, on Christmas Island: A rare or vulnerable species? Principes 27(2): 89–93. [The authors classify the species as vulnerable; the major threat is phosphate mining.]
Pritchard, P. C. H. 1995. Pritchardiopsis lives! Principes 39(1): 52–53. [One of the rarest palms in New Caledonia is cultivated in Noumea by forestry officials.]
Rana, T. S., T. Husain & R. R. Rao. 1995. A critical appraisal of the type locality of a rare palm from Kumaon Himalaya, India. Current Sci. 68(6): 590–592. [Trachycarpus takil is Critically Endangered; ex situ conservation may be its only hope for survival.]
Ratsirarson, J. & J. A. Silander, Jr. 1997. Factors affecting the distribution of a threatened Madagascar palm species Dypsis decaryi. Principes 41(2): 100–111. [Human activities, such as cutting and burning and over-harvesting of seeds and leaves, threaten this palm.]
Ravololonanahary, H. 1999. The conservation status of Satranala decussilvae in the Ianobe Valley, Masoala National Park, Madagascar. PALMS 43(3): 145–148. [The species is threatened by low reproduction and regeneration.]
Sambou, B., J. E. Lawesson & A. S. Barfod. 1992. Borassus aethiopum, a threatened multiple purpose palm in Senegal. Principes 36(3): 148–155. [Over-exploitation threatens the long-term survival of this important resource.]
Savage, A. J. P. & P. S. Ashton. 1991. Tourism is affecting the stand structure of the coco‑de‑mer. Principes 35(1): 47–48. [Increased tourism is leading to harvesting of Lodoicea seeds, which in turn is preventing the natural regeneration of the palm. If controls are not placed on seed harvesting, there will be fewer young palms to replace the older, senescent palms in the population.]
Silva, J. B. F.; Clement, C. R. 2005. Wild pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth var. chichagui) in Southeastern Amazonia {Pupunha brava (Bactris gasipaes Kunth var. chichagui) no sudeste da Amazônia}. Acta Botanica Brasilica 19(2): 283–286. [range expansion]
Stauffer, F. W. & R. Duno de Stefano. 1998. Notes on the conservation status of Asterogyne yaracuyense in Venezuela. Principes 42(1): 57–58. [Habitat disturbance has moved this species into the Endangered category.]
Stuessy, T. F., R. W. Sanders & O. R. Matthei 1983. Juania australis revisited in Juan Fernández Islands, Chile. Principes 27(2): 71–74. [Jaunia is protected and ex situ propagation program exists, although the seedlings are difficult to maintain in good health. This species is no in immediate danger of extinction.]
Timyan, J. C. & S. F. Reep. 1994. Conservation status of Attalea crassispatha (Mart.) Burret, the rare and endemic oil palm of Haiti. Biol. Conserv. 68: 11–18. [Current conservation activities are summarized; ex situ conservation efforts may be the best strategy to save this highly threatened palm.]
Vovides, A. P. & M. A. Garcia Bielma. 1994. A study of the in situ situation of four species of threatened understory palms of the genus Chamaedorea in the wild in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Principes 38(2): 109–113. [Over-harvesting of leaves threatens four species in the wild; CITE Appendix II protection is recommended.]
Wuschke, M. 1992. Palm note [Pritchardia maideniana]. Principes 36(1): 59. [RBG Sydney has succeeded in propagating this species from seeds; it is known from only two aging plants growing in the botanic garden.]
Zona, S., A. James & K Maidman. 2003. The native palms of Dominica. PALMS 47(3): 151–157.

[Of nine native taxa, one is assessed as Critically Endangered; another three are classified as Endangered.]

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