The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is an international treaty to sustain the diversity of life on Earth that was opened for signature at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 and entered into force in December 1993.
Three institutions relevant to its practical functioning have been set up by the Convention: the Conference of the Parties (COP), the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) and the Secretariat (SCBD) that is based in Montreal, Canada. In addition, the Convention has established a financial mechanism for the provision of financial resources to developing countries and provided also for the establishment of a Clearing-House Mechanism (CHM) for scientific and technical cooperation. Currently, there are 190 Parties to the Convention, each represented by so called primary Country National Focal Point (NFP). These NFPs are typically government employees from the respective Environmental Ministries.
The triple principal objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity:
-The conservation of biological diversity;
-The sustainable use of its components and;
-The fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from its utilisation.