Are payments for ecosystem services (PES) a viable way of financing management and restoration of river basins and coastal and marine environments? What steps are needed to develop PES schemes? What are governance needs and how can stakeholders participate? What experiences and lessons learned have been generated from attempts to develop PES in the real world? These are some of the questions examined at the IUCN-GEF IW-Learn workshop on Designing Payment Schemes for Ecosystem Services held from April 3-5, 2008 in conjunction with the Global Forum on Oceans, Coasts and Islands in Hanoi, Vietnam.