Melting glaciers and increased water use
Climate change is showing its face in the Pangani basin. The caps of Mount Kilimanjaro, towering over the basin, have melted considerably and are projectect to disappear completely by 2025.

Flows in the basin have been reduced from several hundreds to less than 40 cubic metres per second. And that remaining water is seriously overallocated. The main sources of demand are inefficient furrow-based irrigation systems.

Increasing conflict and insecurity
The consequences are felt throughout the basin, from the irrigation fields in the centre of the basin and the electricity producers further downstream, to the coastal communities that see saltwater move inland and fish stocks decline.

The shortage of water are leading to tensions between water users from the various sectors. Large and smaller conflicts are on the rise. The pressure is increasing as the awareness that in future even less water may be available is growing.

Especially for the urban centres of Moshi, Arusha and Pangani, the need to meet the needs of the population - expected to rise to 163,000 m3 per day in 2025 - is becoming a worry.

Moving to action
Fortunately, this growing awareness has also led to action. Action of the government, who has now moved to create basin institutions, and action of the stakeholders, who are willing to find better ways of allocating and using water.

The stakeholders came together in 2002 and agreed on a plan of action for improved management of the Pangani.

The Pangani River Basin Management Project

The Pangani River Basin Management Project (PRBMP) is generating technical information and developing participatory forums to strengthen Integrated Water Resources Management in the Pangani River Basin, including mainstreaming climate change, to support the equitable provision and wise governance of freshwater for livelihoods and environment for current and future generations.  

The project aims to achieve improved management of the basin's water resources and reduce the conflicts that exist between users. Its actions will include:

  1. Implementation of effective monitoring and data collection systems
  2. Assessment of environmental flow requirements to effectively conserve the basin's natural resources
  3. Climate change mitigation and adaptation measures to reduce the impacts of climate change and deal with reduced water availability
  4. Legal reviews and multistakeholder consultation to improve management planning and implement rational systems of water allocation


Pangani Basin Water Board is implementing the project with technical assistance from the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Netherlands Development Organization (SNV) and the local NGO PAMOJA.  The project is financially supported by IUCN Water & Nature Initiative, the Government of Tanzania, European Commission through a grant from EU-ACP Water Facility, and the Global Environment Facility through UNDP.

Duration and cost
The project has been running since 2006 at a total cost of +4 million USD