HEC Reviews and Case Studies

Overall reviews

A number of overall reviews of lessons learnt through the practice of human elephant conflict mitigation have been published. 


Vertical integration model

Human-elephant conflict must be tackled at many levels, geographical and organizational, ranging from the site to the central government.

This case study provides an assessment of the players involved in HEC management in Tanzania and their roles.


Understanding HEC

Determination of significant factors in Human-Elephant Conflict

  • Comparative analysis of elephant damage levels versus losses from other pest species in subsistence agricultural communities.
  • Identification of factors contributing to rural peoples' negative attitudes to elephants.
  • Improved understanding of human-elephant conflict dynamics in tropical forested areas. 
  • Recognition of the importance of problem elephant sub-populations and insights into their social ecology.


Managing problem elephants

  • Identification of policy vacuums in problem elephant management at national level.
  • Formulation of principles for the management of problem elephants.
  • Relative ineffectiveness of monetary compensation schemes for elephant damage.


Spatial analysis of HEC

  • Study of the potential future role for geographical information systems (GIS) to store, analyse and present data on human-elephant conflict.

African elephant flapping its ears.