Indigenous and traditional peoples have often been unfairly affected by conservation polices and practices, which have failed to fully understand the rights and roles of indigenous peoples in the management, use and conservation of biodiversity. In line with numerous international instruements (e.g., Agenda 21; ILO Convention 169; Article 8(j) of the CBD; and the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples) several IUCN WCC resolutions emphasise indigenous peoples' rights to lands, territories, and natural resources on which they have traditionally subsisted. These resolutions stress the need to enhance participation of indigenous peoples in all conservation initiatives and policy developments that affect them. Furthermore, they recognise that indigenous peoples possess a unique body of knowledge relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.