Cyprus is situated at the easternmost end of the Mediterranean basin and is the third largest island of the Mediterranean after Sicily and Sardinia, with an area of 9,251 km2.
Geologically, Cyprus is divided in four zones: a) The Pentadactylos Succession in the North, b) the Circum-Troodos Sedimentary Succession between the two mountain ranges, c) the Troodos Ophiolite which extends from the centre to the West, and d) the Mamonia Complex in the South-West.
Cyprus has a typical Mediterranean climate with hot and dry summers and rainy and mild winters. The average annual rainfall is about 480 mm, with great differences from the Troodos range (with its highest peak Chionistra, 1,952 m) where rainfall can reach 1,100 mm, to 300 mm in the central Mesaoria plain. The mean daily temperatures in summer range between 29°C on the Mesaoria plain and 22°C on the Troodos Mountain.
Cyprus is part of the “biodiversity hotspot” of the Mediterranean basin, mainly thanks to its many endemic birds, mammals and insects. It is also considered a centre of plant diversity having almost 2,000 taxa of which 143 are endemic.
The Natura 2000 Network in Cyprus is comprised of 61 sites from which 32 areas are Sites of Community Importance, 21 areas are classified as Special Protected Areas and 8 have both statuses.
There are 3 IUCN Members in Cyprus: the Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment of Cyprus, Terra Cypria – the Cyprus Conservation Foundation, and Omospondia Perivallontikon Ke Ikologikon Organoseon Kyprou, an NGO.