The island of Pitcairn is a small volcanic island of only 5 km². The flora of this island includes 80 species of indigenous vascular plants; 10 of them are endemic. Pitcairn is the only inhabited island of four in the territory. It is home to about 50 people, which makes it the smallest political entity in the world in terms of population. Most of the inhabitants are the descendents of the famous Bounty Mutineers and their Tahitian wives, who took refuge on Pitcairn in 1790.

Henderson Island, a UNESCO World Natural Heritage site, is a raised coral island of 43 km². The other two islands of Oeno and Ducie are small atolls.

The territory is home to 28 species of nesting birds, mostly seabirds. A population of Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas) use East Beach on Henderson Island as a breeding ground. The coral reefs are well developed in Oeno and Ducie. 2/3 of Henderson Island is also surrounded by coral reef, while the reefs around Pitcairn are only slightly developed. Read more