Rapid economic growth juxtaposed with obsolete technology and increasing population pressure has resulted in severe loss and degradation of forest resources in Viet Nam; and effective measures for forest conservation are needed. Forests in Viet Nam are divided into three categories: (i) special-use forest; (ii) protection forest; and, (iii) production forest.

The Viet Nam Strategy for Environmental Protection 2001-2010, Viet Nam Agenda 21, the Forest Protection and Development Law (2004), the Viet Nam Forestry Development Strategy 2006 -2020, and the NTFP Strategy 2007-2020 are the foundations for the country's policies on forest use and conservation.

With Cuc Phuong National Park, Viet Nam established its first protected area in 1962. Among mechanisms to address forest rehabilitation and conservation, in 1998 the Government of Viet Nam established a 5-Million Hectare Reforestation Programme that aims to bring forest cover back to its 1945 level by 2010. The Forest Sector Support Programme and Partnership (FSSP & P) provides government and ODA (Official Development Assistance) agencies with a framework to implement reforestation activities.