The document was created under the project ‘Programme Support for Northern Pakistan’ implemented from 2004-07. The project was a continuation of implementation of initiatives that began with the development of the National Conservation Strategy, as well as provincial and district level strategies. It called for a devolved system and demonstration of contribution well functioning ecosystems and natural systems could make towards equity, poverty reduction and improving livelihoods. This in turn helped communities appreciate benefits of conservation and participate proactively` towards sustainable management. Additionally, eight Natural Resource Management (NRM) related people-centred model projects were implemented in North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Northern Areas (NAs) through partners, in areas for which Integrated District Vision (IDVs) were available. Project outcomes included involving community (males and females) in planning, monitoring and decision making; influencing institutions towards equitable and sustainable systems; exercising natural resource ownership; increasing incomes; and assessing sustainability of natural resource use and management. Focus areas included utilization of natural assets: forests, chilghoza pine nuts, water resources, environment friendly mining and mushroom farming.